Contact Policy I am open to receiving private messages on any history related topic. I also have an abiding interest in the changing portrayals and receptions of Cleopatra VII in both Western and Middle Eastern contexts from Antiquity to the modern era, including literature, historiography, and film. The main reason for my fascination with Cleopatra is derived from the pervasive and far reaching mythology surrounding her, which exists not in the absence of historical evidence as with some historical figures, but in spite of and parallel to it, filling in the gaps of our knowledge.
This dramatic event, counted as Seleucus' first regal year, was continued as the Seleucid Era, the first continuous count of time in world chronology, soon to inspire the similar Arsacid Era of Parthia. There is also the residual uncertainty about Hellenistic dating. Bickerman, for instance, positively asserted that Seleucus reconquered Babylon "in August of " [Chronology of the Ancient World, Cornell University Press,p.
Seleucus] was given a thousand men by Ptolemy and set out from Palestine to Babylonia" [Dividing the The life and controversies of cleopatra vii, Oxford,p. While we may have more confidence in up-to-date scholarship, sometimes older analyses are later vindicated.
As recounted aboveSeleucus had to fend off two major efforts against him to recover Babylon for Antigonus Monophthalmos.
With Babylon secure, he was able to take control of the vast Iranian hinterland, the geographical bulk of Alexander's Empire. However, Seleucus leaves India to the growing power of the Mauryasand was compensated with war elephants that he then began to breed himself.
Having defeated and killed Antigonus and LysimachusSeleucus was about to add Thrace to his kingdom when, stepping out of the boat in Europe, he was assassinated by Ptolemy Ceraunus, whom he had taken in as a refugee from his father, Ptolemy I. Ceraunus is also said to have killed Seleucus while they were hunting together near Lysmacheia, which had been Lysimachus' capital on the Gallipoli peninsula.
Ceraunus claimed the throne of Thrace and Macedon, while the rest of Seleucus' domain passed to his half-Iranian son Antiochus. The capital of the kingdom, Seleucia, founded on the Tigris, began to replace Babylon as the metropolitan city of the region, but it did not achieve the historical significance and permanence of Alexandria in Egypt.
A more permanent city of historical importance and fame would be Antioch in Syria now in Turkey. While Seleucid authority was never fully established over several kingdoms in Anatolia, like Armenia and Pontusmore distant areas, like Parthia and Bactriabegan to drift away. Antiochus III stopped this process and began to reverse it, marching to India and wresting Palestine from the Ptolemies, but then had the misfortune to become the first Seleucid to clash with Rome.
His defeat in began a steep decline for the kingdom. Bythe Seleucids would be confined to Syria. Their last 60 years would be consumed with pointless dynastic conflict and fragmentation, and 14 years of Armenian occupation.
Then Rome would pick up the pieces. Pompey "settles the East" in 63 BC with the annexation of the remaining Seleucid lands and the reduction of other local states, like Judaeato Roman clients. The Hanging Gardens of Babylon Neo- 3. The Statue of Zeus at Olympia Greek 4.
The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus Carian 5. The Temple of Artemis at Ephesus Greek 6. The Colossus of Rhodes Greek 7. The Temple of Artemis, at least the one familiar in the Hellenistic Age an earlier templed dated from the 6th centuryand the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus were products of the 4th century; and King Mausolus d.
The last two Wonders were then actual products of the Hellenistic Age, in the 3th century. The Colossus of Rhodes was constructed by a surviving Greek city state, to celebrate its delivery from the siege of Demetrius Poliorcetes in ; but then the Pharos Lighthouse was one of the supreme symbols of Hellenistic Monarchy, built by Ptolemy I and II in the first and greatest city of Alexander, marking its location, day and light, on the edge of the otherwise flat and undistinguished Delta of Egypt.
The Colossus of Rhodes did not survive long as constructed. It fell in an earthquake in BC. Reconstructed as a still surviving fort, the massive masonry blocks of the Lighthouse can even now be inspected.
The Crusaders built a fort out of the Mausoleum also, and it is hard to know how much damage it may already have endured. The Temple of Artemis suffered more than one act of destruction. The pre-Hellenistic temple was set on fire by an aronist in It is unclear whether this completely destroyed the temple or not.
As the area of Ephesus silted up, the site was buried. When excavated after its discovery inthe "Englishman's Pit" subsequently filled up with water. It then looked like a small abandoned lake with a few stones and columns visible above water. Much of the stone may have been taken for other projects, including the Church of Sancta Sophia in Constantinople.
The Statue of Zeus from Olympia was relocated to Constantiople at its building, along with masses of other Classical statuary of whose existence we still seem to be learning, and kept at the Lauseion Palace.
When the Palace burned inthe statue was lost, along with others, such as the famous Aphrodite of Cnidus.Melvyn Bragg and guests discuss the Austrian princess Maria Antonia, child bride of the future French King Louis XVI.
Their marriage was an attempt to bring about a major change in the balance of power in Europe and to undermine the influence of Prussia and Great Britain, but she had no say in the matter and was the pawn of her mother, the Empress Maria Theresa.
Cleopatra VII was born in early 69 BC to the ruling Ptolemaic pharaoh Ptolemy XII and an unknown mother, presumably Ptolemy XII's wife Cleopatra VI Tryphaena (also known as Cleopatra V Tryphaena), the mother of Cleopatra's older sister, Berenice IV Epiphaneia. When Cleopatra VII ascended the Egyptian throne, she was only seventeen.
Hence the controversy over Cleopatra's real motives. Was she Queen Cleopatra's royal barge, last of the Pharoahs Egyptian boat building - Khufu's royal barge - solar boat for . Life and reign. Daughter of King The brilliant Cleopatra VII (69–30 bce), last of the Greek Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt, was ambitious to rule the world.
In the realism of power politics she had to conquer Rome: the path lay through marriage with whoever held the power there. The surviving portraits show that. The controversy over Cleopatra’s race – Collection of Scholar Sources.
tacitly dismissing any claim that Cleopatra may have a mixed-race heritage. So, who exactly was Cleopatra VII? But what of Cleopatra’s racial heritage? Her mother is, of course, unknown, although we suspect that she was Cleopatra V, who in turn we suspect of .
Hellenistic Monarchs down to the Roman Empire. The Hellenistic Age suffers from some of the same disabilities as Late Antiquity, i.e.
|Cleopatra: The last Pharaoh of Egypt | Kentake Page||The reign of Cleopatra was that of a vigorous and exceptionally able queen who was ambitious, among other things, to revive the prestige of the dynasty by cultivating influence with powerful Roman… Life and reign Daughter of King Ptolemy XII AuletesCleopatra was destined to become the last queen of the Macedonian dynasty that ruled Egypt between the death of Alexander the Great in bce and its annexation by Rome in 30 bce.|
it doesn't measure up to the brilliance of the Golden Age of Greece and of late Republican and early Imperial Rome.