The Resources Development Administration RDA for short mines for a valuable mineral — unobtanium — on Pandora, a densely forested habitable moon orbiting the gas giant Polyphemus in the Alpha Centauri star system. To explore Pandora's biospherescientists use Na'vi-human hybrids called "avatars", operated by genetically matched humans; Jake Sully, a paraplegic former Marinereplaces his deceased identical twin brother as an operator of one. Grace Augustine, head of the Avatar Program, considers Sully an inadequate replacement but accepts his assignment as a bodyguard. While protecting the avatars of Grace and fellow scientist Dr.
How Peter the Great Modernized Russia peter the great [quote]Ladies and gentlemen of the court caught sleeping with their boots on will be instantly decapitated. Ina six-foot, seven-inch, year-old Peter Romanov inherited a backwards Russian kingdom and transformed it into an empire that rivaled those of the West.
By the time of his death, Peter Romanov—better known as Peter the Great—set Russia on a trajectory that would one day meet and outstrip the strength of all other European nations.
Without question, this enormous man was enormously important. While the European powers of Spain, Portugal, Britain, and France were already grinding their footprints overseas, exporting Western culture to other continents, the isolated Tsardom of Russia struggled for an identity.
Centuries earlier, before the turn of the millennium, a local east Slavic ethnic group known as the Rus consolidated around the city of Kiev in Eastern Europe. Kieven Russia remained as a sizeable Eastern European entity for several hundred years. By the mid-thirteenth century, however, pressure from an aggressive Asian tribe, the Mongoliansfragmented the Rus, and they were integrated into the Mongolian Empire.
Were they still European if they were governed by an Asian people? Even after the Grand Duchy of Moscow broke away from the disintegrating Mongolian Empire in and unified many of the Russian territories, the new Russian leaders had an easier time acquiring eastern, Asian lands than they did European lands to their west.
Ivan and his successors pushed ever eastward. They crossed the continental divide—the Ural Mountains —and just kept going. As a result, Russia absorbed more and more people who looked less and less European. There were also major cultural differences between Western Europeans and Russians.
In fact, while Russia, in terms of its geography, seemed to be both European and Asian, in terms of its culture, it was often neither. They even slept with their shoes on, a practice considered highly uncivilized by Westerners of the day.
Thus, Russia was neither geographically nor culturally Western. It had Mongolian heritage, most of it lied in Asia, as did millions of Russian Asians. They practiced a different kind of Christianity, wore different clothes, had different habits, and wrote different letters.
Ultimately, by the time of Peter Romanov in the late seventeenth century, Russia had done little to keep up with the modernizing European continent. Technologically and culturally, it fell centuries behind.
It had no Renaissanceno Reformationno Scientific Revolution. Its army and navy lagged woefully behind. Its Orthodox clergy controlled education. There was no quality literature or art of which to speak, no emphasis on mathematics or science. It was a century of a rising merchant class.
Rural peasants moved to growing cities for diverse employment. As serfdom faded away in the West, it was increasing in the Russia inherited by Peter Romanov.
And while Western Europe, with its numerous warm-water ports, sailed the seas and brought in unprecedented profits from subjugated colonies, Russia pushed eastward, finding nothing but icy coasts, frigid taiga, and the remnants of a malformed Mongolian Empire that had relied more on pillaging than infrastructure.
In this case, going eastward was the equivalent of going nowhere, and it seemed to be the only thing the Russians were doing fast. And then came Peter the Great. Inhe inherited sole control over the Russian state.
He determined that the best way to catch the European powers was to become like them. Within a year of his ascension to sole sovereign, an undercover Peter traveled to Europe to learn about it.
He also ordered 50 Russian nobles to scatter throughout Western Europe to learn about its culture and innovations.Avatar, marketed as James Cameron's Avatar, is a American epic science fiction film directed, written, produced, and co-edited by James Cameron, and stars Sam Worthington, Zoe Saldana, Stephen Lang, Michelle Rodriguez, and Sigourney benjaminpohle.com film is set in the midnd century, when humans are colonizing Pandora, a lush habitable moon of a gas giant in the Alpha Centauri star system, in.
No more talk about the old days, it’s time for something great. I want you to get out and make it work Thom Yorke Dedicated to the wonderful people of RuinAmalia, La Revoltosa, and the Kyiv infoshop, for making anarchy work.
Overall rating: rating 5 of 5 Had a fabulous time! Asa was a great tour guide and went out of her way to make our time in Scandinavia an experience to remember.
Peter the Great began building St. Petersburg in Named after his patron saint, St. Petersburg would be a "a great window for Russia to look out at Europe." St.
Petersburg quickly became a symbol of Peter the Great's new and more powerful Russia. Peter the Great, however, had other plans. Thanks to him, Russia modernized. The Peterless Ottomans, despite far superior geography, did not. As Russia eventually joined the great powers of Europe, the Ottoman Empire steadily weakened, disintegrated, and lost land to surrounding nations, including Russia.
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