We're accustomed to paperand even though a lot of our communicating is done on computers now, paper is everywhere. But even though paper was invented as early as the year A. The development of technology also had an effect on what writing implements could be made of.
The theory may be only partly correct, because in the Holy Land the Early Hebrew alphabet was an object of such strong local attachment that for several centuries it was used side by side with the Aramaic script.
At any rate, there is little doubt that the Square Hebrew did derive from the Aramaic alphabet. A distinctive Jewish variety of the Aramaic alphabet that can be regarded as the Square Hebrew script can be traced from the 3rd century bce.
It became standardized just before the Common Era, and it was from this script that the modern Hebrew alphabet, in all its styles, eventually developed. The development was gradual and purely external i.
When the Square Hebrew alphabet became standardized, it took at least, in its formal style and, much later, in its printed form the form that, with insignificant changes, it has today.
Minute rules laid down by the Talmud made further development of the Square Hebrew all but impossible. In the Square Hebrew alphabet there are five letters—kaf, mem, nun, pe, and tzade—that have dual forms. That is, there is one character for initial or medial position and another for final position.
The Hebrew alphabet consists of 22 letters, all consonants, though four of them—alef, he, waw, and yod—are also employed to represent long vowels.
The absence of vowel letters was not at first a problem, because Hebrew, like other Semitic languageshas consonantal roots, with vowels serving principally to denote inflections in nouns, moods of verbs, and other grammatical variations.
As Hebrew speech passed out of daily use being superseded by Aramaic, which became the vernacular of the Jews and the knowledge of biblical Hebrew pen chinese writing alphabet declined, it became necessary to introduce some form of vocalic distinction so that the Bible could be read and explained correctly.
The three main vowel systems now extant are the Babylonian, the Palestinian, and the Tiberiadic; of these the latter is the most important and, indeed, the only one still in use.
The Tiberiadic system consists of dots, combinations of dots, and small dashes. Before the discovery of the celebrated Dead Sea Scrollsseveral Square Hebrew inscriptions belonging mainly to the 1st century bce and the succeeding centuries were known; they were found on rocks, tombs, or ossuaries depositories for the bones of the dead and in synagogues and catacombs in Palestine, Syria, North Africaand Italy.
The biblical manuscripts, except for some fragments written on papyrusbelong to a much later date. The earliest fragment is the Nash papyrus of approximately the 1st century bce, now in the University of Cambridge Library.
Many thousands of fragments of Hebrew biblical and other manuscripts, partly of the 7th and 8th centuries ce, were discovered in the genizah repository of the old Ezra synagogue in Cairo. The focus of scholarly interest during the late s and the successive years was the sensational discovery of Hebrew biblical and nonbiblical scrolls in caves near the Dead Sea.
The tens of thousands of fragmentary manuscripts, composing what are popularly called the Dead Sea Scrolls, may be divided into several groups, the oldest being a collection of biblical and other Hebrew manuscripts dating approximately from the 3rd century bce.
In the more than bimillenary development of the Square Hebrew alphabet, four fundamental types can be noticed: The Hebrew script has been adapted to some other languages, such as Arabic, Turkish for the Karaite people of Crimeaand so forth, but particularly to German—hence, Yiddish —and Spanish—hence, Ladinoor Judeo-Spanish.
Arabic alphabet The Arabic script descended from the Aramaic through the Nabataean and the neo-Sinaitic alphabets. After the Latin script, it is the most widely used form of alphabetic writing in the modern world.
The Arab conquests of the 7th and 8th centuries ce brought the language and the script to the vast expanse of territory extending from India to the Atlantic Ocean. The Arabic alphabet was adapted, with some necessary modifications, to such diverse languages as the Slavic tonguesSpanishPersianUrduTurkishHebrewAmazigh BerberSwahiliMalaySudanese, and others.
The Arabic alphabet probably originated at some time in the 4th century ce, but the earliest extant Arabic writing is a trilingual inscription—Greek-Syriac-Arabic—of ce. It was particularly suitable for writing on stone or metal, for painting or carving inscriptions on the walls of mosques, and for lettering on coins.
Its letters are generally thick, squat, and unslanted. From it there were derived a number of other styles, chiefly medieval, in North and Central Africa, Spain, and northern Arabia. Thereafter, it was virtually discontinued except for formal and monumental writing.
It was always employed chiefly for writing on papyrus. Courtesy of the trustees of the British Museum Like other Semitic scripts, Arabic is written from right to left.
The written letters undergo a slight external change according to their position within a word.
When they stand alone or occur at the end of a word, they ordinarily terminate in a bold stroke; when they appear in the middle of a word, they are ordinarily joined to the letter following by a small, upward curved stroke.
With the exception of six letters, which can be joined only to the preceding ones, the initial and medial letters are much abbreviated, while the final form consists of the initial form with a triumphant flourish.
The essential part of the characters, however, remains unchanged. On the whole, the evolution of the forms of the Arabic letters was the most rapid of all the branches of alphabetic writing.
Arabic manuscriptArabic manuscript containing records of the eclipses of solarlunarlunarand solar ce, from the Hakemite Tables compiled by the Cairo astronomer Ibn Yunus, c.
The practice was probably borrowed from the Syriac script. It not only provides vowel sounds but also distinguishes different consonants; diacritical points are also used as endings in the inflection of nouns and the moods of verbs.
Thus, there are, on the whole, a great number of diacritical points; these form a peculiar characteristic of this writing form.
Indian alphabets The Aramaic alphabet was probably the prototype of the Brahmi script of India, the ancestor of all Indian scripts. The transmission probably took place in the 7th century bce. Adapting the Aramaic script to the Indo-Aryan tongue of India was by no means simple or straightforward.The link between Chinese calligraphy and Old English calligraphy comes from the Phoenicians, who are credited with the first alphabet and letter writing systems and .
]]> Chinese Calligraphy ]]> The website covers an introduction to Chinese calligraphy, major styles of Chinese calligraphy and resources. ]]> Calligraphy Lessons ]]> The website contains PDF's which include a plain transcription of an Arabic phrase and a literal English translation.
Alphabet - Major alphabets of the world: It is generally believed, in accordance with Jewish tradition, that the Early Hebrew alphabet was superseded in the Holy Land by the Aramaic alphabet during the Babylonian Exile (– bce) and that the Aramaic script therefore became the parent of the Square Hebrew (in Hebrew ketav merubaʿ [“square script”] or ketav ashuri [“Assyrian writing.
Proust and the Squid: The Story and Science of the Reading Brain [Maryanne Wolf] on benjaminpohle.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Human beings were never born to read, writes Tufts University cognitive neuroscientist and child development expert Maryanne Wolf.
Reading is a human invention that reflects how the brain rearranges itself to learn something new. Traditional East Asian writing uses the Four Treasures of the Study (文房四寶 / 文房四宝): the ink brushes known as máobǐ (毛筆 / 毛笔) to write Chinese characters, Chinese ink, paper, and inkstone, known as the Four Friends of the Study (Korean: 문방사우, translit.
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