The legendary cosmologist carl sagan once said: Nowadays, Robots are everywhere revolutioning every aspect of our life,from nano-rabots destroying cancer cells in our bodies to robots probes exploring space searching for life. The second most influencial person in the field of robotics I believe is the English computer pionner and artificial intelligence theorist alan Turing Thanks to his massive contributions ,today we have artificially intelligent robots able to perform even more complex tasks.
Superintelligence A superintelligence, hyperintelligence, or superhuman intelligence is a hypothetical agent that possesses intelligence far surpassing that of the brightest and most gifted human minds.
John von Neumann, Vernor Vinge and Ray Kurzweil define the concept in terms of the technological creation of super intelligence. They argue that it is difficult or impossible for present-day humans to predict what human beings' lives would be like in a post-singularity world.
Some argue that advances in artificial intelligence AI will probably result in general reasoning systems that lack human cognitive limitations. Others believe that humans will evolve or directly modify their biology so as to achieve radically greater intelligence.
A number of futures studies scenarios combine elements from both of these possibilities, suggesting that humans are likely to interface with computersor upload their minds to computersin a way that enables substantial intelligence amplification. Non-AI singularity[ edit ] Some writers use "the singularity" in a broader way to refer to any radical changes in our society brought about by new technologies such as molecular nanotechnology   although Vinge and other writers specifically state that without superintelligence, such changes would not qualify as a true singularity.
The means speculated to produce intelligence augmentation are numerous, and include bioengineeringgenetic engineeringnootropic drugs, AI assistants, direct brain—computer interfaces and mind uploading.
The existence of multiple paths to an intelligence explosion makes a singularity more likely; for a singularity to not occur they would all have to fail.
Despite the numerous speculated means for amplifying human intelligence, non-human artificial intelligence specifically seed AI is the most popular option for organizations[ which?
Contrariwise, as the intelligences become more advanced, further advances will become more and more complicated, possibly overcoming the advantage of increased intelligence. Each improvement must be able to beget at least one more improvement, on average, for the singularity to continue.
Finally the laws of physics will eventually prevent any further improvements. There are two logically independent, but mutually reinforcing causes of intelligence improvements: On the other hand, most AI researchers[ who?
Oversimplified,  Moore's Law suggests that if the first doubling of speed took 18 months, the second would take 18 subjective months; or 9 external months, whereafter, four months, two months, and so on towards a speed singularity.
Hawkins [ citation needed ], responding to Good, argued that the upper limit is relatively low; Belief in this idea is based on a naive understanding of what intelligence is.
As an analogy, imagine we had a computer that could design new computers chips, systems, and software faster than itself. Would such a computer lead to infinitely fast computers or even computers that were faster than anything humans could ever build?
It might accelerate the rate of improvements for a while, but in the end there are limits to how big and fast computers can be. We would end up in the same place; we'd just get there a bit faster.
There would be no singularity. Whereas if it were a lot higher than current human levels of intelligence, the effects of the singularity would be great enough as to be indistinguishable to humans from a singularity with an upper limit.
For example, if the speed of thought could be increased a million-fold, a subjective year would pass in 30 physical seconds. But Berglas notes that computer speech recognition is approaching human capabilities, and that this capability seems to require 0.
This analogy suggests that modern computer hardware is within a few orders of magnitude of being as powerful as the human brain. Exponential growth[ edit ] Ray Kurzweil writes that, due to paradigm shiftsa trend of exponential growth extends Moore's law from integrated circuits to earlier transistorsvacuum tubesrelaysand electromechanical computers.glastonbury line-up wed 21st - sun 25th june a.
a brief case history of science walkabouts friday - ; a brief case history of science walkabouts friday - ; a brief case history of science walkabouts saturday - ; a brief case history of science walkabouts saturday - ; a brief case history of science walkabouts sunday - Most university courses, from undergraduate degrees onwards, expect a fair bit from applicants.
Not only does each course have set academic requirements and forms to fill out; most applicants will also be asked to provide examples of their work, a CV, and even . The motivation letter (also knowne as “statement of purpose”) is a document where you describe your professional competence and personal motivation about choosing to study a particular study field at a particular university.
ADVANCED SCIENCE LETTERS is a multidisciplinary peer-reviewed journal with a very wide-ranging coverage, consolidates fundamental and applied research activities by publishing proceedings from international scientific, technical and medical conferences in all areas of (1) Physical Sciences, (2) Engineering, (3) Biological Sciences/Health Sciences, (4) Medicine, (5) Computer and Information.
Motivation letter for Master studies, Motivation letter for University In this article we bring you authentic Motivation letter for a Master degree program in IT wrote by one of out contributor. In the same time letter serves as motivation letter for a scholarship / tuition free waiver.
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