David Archer - DavidArcherAA 8 September In recent decades some good progress has been made in improving gender parity in primary education around the world - but superficial gains hide some shocking truths. In low income families in Africa, for every boys only 83 girls complete primary education, only 73 girls complete lower secondary and only 40 girls complete upper secondary. Patriarchy in education is clearly still alive and kicking. Indeed, public schools display a gender bias in multiple ways, fed by widespread stereotypes, social norms and entrenched practices which perpetuate discrimination and the particular disadvantaging of girls.
What is wrong with these observations? Well, nothing is inherently wrong but it leaves an impression on the children that can be extremely damaging. Do we ever say that a boy is so caring that he will be good with children?
Gender stereotypes are perpetuated in every social institution and schools are no exceptions. I think that it is important for teachers to consciously treat their boy and girl students alike and not make remarks or use gender stereotypical illustrations.
From the time of fairy tales, it is always the handsome and brave prince coming to the rescue of the forlorn princess from the demons or witches.
To counter such examples, teachers need to pick stories and fables that do not perpetuate hierarchies that will eventually get transmitted from one generation to another.
The first thing that teachers need to consciously understand is that sex is a biological fact and gender is a social construct. Boys and girls do not have any natural psychological or social differences, but it is society that makes them learn gender roles.
Gender socialization is the process of learning where little children are told to behave and articulate gender specific norms.
For example, girls are encouraged to be soft spoken and home bound playing with dolls and kitchen toys while boys are encouraged to be aggressive by playing outside with cars and guns.
Typically, schools continue to reinforce such gender stereotypes by offering home science to girls and sports to boys.
There are ways in which teachers can consciously develop gender neutral teaching material and encourage girls and boys to be high achievers. The first step for teachers is to develop gender neutral language. It is appalling that in a school full of female teachers, one can hardly hear them use her or she when they are teaching.
Teachers must consciously use he or she, her or him, and alternate between male and female examples. Gender stereotypes can be perpetuated and strengthened both by men and women. One cannot think that as women we are all practicing gender equality.
All learning material has to be scrutinized in a way that supports gender neutral language. It is also important to use the new books that have been conceptualized by the NCERT and other publishers using positive examples for men and women. Both textbook and audio-visual material must be checked gender check to see that stereotypes of male doctors and female nurses are not reproduced.
We do not want children to ask whether women can indeed drive buses; we have to create a normal atmosphere that does not build on those stereotypes that we have ourselves grown up with.
Teachers should not call only the mother of the child for discussions on the children. They must make efforts to involve both fathers and mothers and not request to speak to the mother alone.
In the classroom an effort must be made to integrate boys and girls and not separate them in the seating arrangements. Studies in classroom behavior have shown that boys are far more active in the classroom than girls and they usually have no hesitation in initiating a discussion.
Girls on the other hand, are more shy and hesitant. Teachers may have to call on the girls consciously to participate and take leadership roles in classroom discussions. In the organization of group discussions, there must be a mix of the genders rather than segregating them. One interesting group discussion topic can be about domestic chores and how children help their parents in certain tasks.Femininity (also called girlishness, womanliness or womanhood) is a set of attributes, behaviors, and roles generally associated with girls and benjaminpohle.comnity is partially socially constructed, being made up of both socially-defined and biologically-created factors.
This makes it distinct from the definition of the biological female sex, as both males and females can exhibit feminine traits.  The United Republic of Tanzania is a unitary republic comprising Tanzania mainland and Zanzibar.
There are two central governments-the Union Government and the Zanzibar Revolutionary. Sep 21, · Gender stereotypes are destroying girls, and they're killing boys.
A new study finds that across the globe, boys and girls start believing gender myths before they turn Perpetuation of Gender Stereotypes last updated April 30, Many experts on sexual harassment maintain that sexual harassment contributes to the subordination of women by perpetuating gender stereotypes in the workplace.
College newspapers and mainstream media outlets alike oftentimes ruminate on the gender gaps that exist in numerous degree plans. While most attention turns toward the lack of women in STEM fields, many majors overwhelmingly experience a crush of females with very few men signing up.
Seeing celebs embrace gender fluid style choices suggests that society has progressed past outdated gender stereotypes. Or, has it? to challenge these stereotypes such as encouraging free thought and independence as well as having discussions about stereotypes perpetuated by the media.
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