Pharmacists were twice as likely as medical GPs to endorse the view that "if a patient has decided to end their own life then doctors should be allowed in law to assist". Legality of euthanasia Voluntary euthanasia was legalized in the Netherlands inBelgium inLuxembourg in and Canada in
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background Euthanasia is one of the most intriguing ethical, medical and law issues that marked whole XX century and beginning of the XXI century, sharply dividing scientific and unscientific public to its supporters and opponents.
It also appears as one of the points where all three major religions Catholic, Orthodox, and Islamic have the same view. They are strongly against legalizing mercy killing, emphasizing the holiness of life as a primary criterion by which the countries should start in their considerations.
Studying criminal justice systems in the world, the authors concluded that the issue of deprivation of life from compassion is solved on three ways.
On the first place, we have countries where euthanasia is murder like any other murder from the criminal codes. Second, the most numerous are states where euthanasia is murder committed under privilege circumstances.
On the third place, in the Western Europe we have countries where euthanasia is a legal medical procedure, under requirements prescribed by the law. In this paper, authors have made a brief comparison of the solutions that exist in some Islamic countries, where euthanasia is a murder, with Western countries, where it represents completely decriminalized medical procedure.
The debate over legalizing euthanasia is like earthquake 1 — 4sharply divides the scientific and unscientific public on its supporters and opponents, and although through literature pervades the opinion that this topic has been exhausted 5.
In the maelstrom of issues that this topic opens, legislators all around the world try to find a practical solution, in order to resolve adequately the question of euthanasia. The line that separates admissible from impermissible merciful deprivation of life through the centuries has consistently been moved: Globally, there are three main ways of regulation of mercy killing.
One group of countries equates it with ordinary murder, while the second group represents the view that the euthanasia is privileged murder. Finally, in the third group euthanasia is decriminalized upon fulfillment of prescribed conditions.
In Islamic countries, euthanasia is prohibited, both in the East 6 and Euthanasia and physician assisted suicide murder or the Bosnia and Herzegovina.
It is seen as non-Islamic 7 and it is equalized to the murder. Accordingly, in the countries where euthanasia is legally punishable, sentences vary from very lenient to the death penalty, as was the case in the Islamic countries 8.
Since the debate over the legalization of active euthanasia does not subside for many years, its supporters and opponents have created strong organizations that represent their beliefs about the im morality and in feasibility of the same.
The focus of the problem lies in the question what extent is necessary to respect the life of terminally ill patients, and accordingly provide strong arguments. In other words, the question is whether in addition to the right on life, as a fundamental human right guaranteed by the European Convention of Human Rights and Liberties, there is a right to die, established through the right to self-determination.
Thus, opponents of legalization of active euthanasia, as primary argument, emphasize the holiness of life at all costs which is supported primarily with arguments in Islamic and Christian religion, which prohibit any form of suicide 79while its supporters believe that the moral obligation of doctors is to end the life of terminally ill patient who is suffering, but they also highlight the strong individual autonomy in the matters of life and death.
In short, both supporters and opponents summarize most of their arguments on the concept of respect for the patient, where they allocate four forms: Therefore, inter alia, any discussion of euthanasia leads to objections based on religious grounds. This religious opposition to euthanasia is based on the claim that only someone who is not religious can consider euthanasia as one of the options in the life, but it cannot be for the people who have a religious orientation.
In accordance with beliefs that prevail in some countries, their legislators resolve the issue of euthanasia in accordance with those beliefs, and some solutions will be discussed below. Among the reasons that explain the different treatment of euthanasia between countries, according to some authors, doctors often have a limited experience in this field, because they are not faced with such health condition of the patients This statement is correct.
For example, physicians in Bosnia and Herzegovina do not have any experience with euthanasia. Euthanasia as murder In the world were crystallized three approaches in the legislative regulations of this matter, and we will briefly point out the solutions in some jurisdictions.
Due to the volume of work, we will explain the legislations in which euthanasia is equated with murder, as well as legislations that represent quite the opposite solution. First, in all Islamic countries, in accordance with religious beliefs, direct euthanasia is prohibited and is equated with the murder.
Iran is no exception.
In Iranian law, euthanasia is not explicitly mentioned in the legal texts, but there are some exceptions that lead to a more lenient punishment in some murder cases. However, the euthanasia is a murder with intent, and comes from a religious doctrine of Muslims.
Because of the above, there are still no attempts for broader interventions for legalizing mercy killing Such line of regulation of this sensitive matter kept the legislator in the Bosnia and Herzegovina, which has four similar criminal regulations, because this country has four legislations Bosnia and Herzegovina, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Republic of Serbs, and Brcko District.
These parts of the Bosnia do not have a same approach to the regulation of euthanasia, although at first glance it could be said that there is no difference in these criminal laws.
It is a specific country, consisting of two entities Federation Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Republic of Serbsand the Brcko District. All three parts have their own legislation. For some considerations it is important to note that on this territory are valid three criminal codes: Criminal Code of Federation Bosnia and Herzegovina further: The legislator makes a difference between this, ordinary murder, and the first degree murder which includes causing a death of another person in a cruel or insidious way; by reckless and violent behavior; on racial, national or religious reasons; for gain, to commit or conceal another serious crime; from ruthless revenge or other base motives; and the murder of official or military personnel in the performance of duties of security or the duty to maintain public order, arrest the perpetrator of the crime or guarding a person deprived o liberty article This essay has been submitted by a law student.
This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers. United States Law And History On Euthanasia. This issues paper explores voluntary euthanasia. It is not intended to be exhaustive, however it aims to add to considerations of this very complex and sensitive topic through analysis of the domestic regulatory environment relating to both passive and active forms of voluntary euthanasia, and of relevant international laws by way of comparison with .
Oregon. The state of Oregon has had a physician-assisted suicide law since which was implemented in Since then more than terminally ill people have taken advantage of it to hasten their deaths. Read the full details here.. Washington. Last year, physician-assisted suicide bills were introduced in 27 other states and failed to make it to votes.
The American Medical Association opposes euthanasia laws. By making physician assisted suicide legal it would put an end to secretive assisted suicide. An example of secret assisted suicide that is well known is the story of Dr. Jack Kevorkian who by his own admission has help in assisted suicides (Darr, ).
information for research on euthanasia, physician-assisted suicide, living wills, mercy killing.