So if something goes wrong with them, it can have far-reaching effects. Chromosomes are bundles of genes, and your body relies on having just the right number of them.
Read now Diagnosis Women with a higher chance of having a child with Down syndrome may receive screening and diagnostic tests. Screening tests can estimate the probability of Down syndrome being present.
Some diagnostic tests can definitively tell whether the fetus has the condition. Screening tests Women aged 30 to 35 years or older may receive genetic screening during pregnancy because the risk of having a child with Down syndrome increases as women age.
At 11 to 14 weeks, an ultrasound can measure the clear space in folds of tissue behind the neck of a developing baby. Triple screen or quadruple screen: This combines the results of first-trimester blood tests and screening tests, with or without nuchal translucency, with second-trimester quadruple screening results.
A blood test that analyzes fetal DNA found in the maternal blood.
At 18 to 20 weeks, a detailed ultrasound is combined with blood test results. Screening is a cost-effective and less invasive way to determine if more invasive diagnostic tests are needed. However, unlike diagnostic tests, they cannot confirm whether Down syndrome is present.
Diagnostic tests Diagnostic tests are more accurate in detecting Down syndrome and other problems. They are usually performed inside the uterus, and they increase the risk of miscarriage, fetal injury, or preterm labor.
At 8 to 12 weeks, a tiny sample of placenta is obtained for analysis, using a needle inserted into the cervix or the abdomen. At 15 to 20 weeks, a small amount of amniotic fluid is obtained for analysis, using a needle inserted into the abdomen.
Percutaneous umbilical blood sampling: After 20 weeks, a small sample of blood is taken from the umbilical cord for analysis, using a needle inserted into the abdomen.
Treatment There is no specific treatment for Down syndrome. People with the syndrome will receive care for health problems, just as other people do. However, additional health screening for common problems may be recommended. Early intervention can help the individual maximize their potential and prepare them to take an active role in the community.
Apart from physicians, special educators, speech therapists, occupational therapists, physical therapists, and social workers can all help.
Children who have specific difficulties with learning and development may be eligible for educational support, either in a mainstream or specialized school.
In recent years, the tendency has increasingly been to attend mainstream schools, often with additional support to help them integrate and progress. Types The most common form of Down syndrome is known as trisomy 21, a condition where individuals have 47 chromosomes in each cell instead of Trisomy 21 is caused by an error in cell division called nondisjunction.
This leaves a sperm or egg cell with an extra copy of chromosome 21 before or at conception. This variant accounts for 95 percent of Down syndrome cases. The remaining 5 percent of Down syndrome cases are due to conditions called mosaicism and translocation.
Mosaic Down syndrome results when some cells in the body are normal while others have Trisomy Robertsonian translocation occurs when part of chromosome 21 breaks off during cell division and attaches to another chromosome, usually chromosome The presence of this extra part of chromosome 21 causes some Down syndrome characteristics.
A person with a translocation does not have any special physical features, but they are more likely to have a child with an extra 21st chromosome.
Outlook A person with Down syndrome will be able to do many of the things that other people do. Children may take longer to acquire skills such as walking and talking, but with stimulationthey can acquire key life skills and attend school and, in some cases, college.
Depending on how the syndrome affects the individual, it is often possible for someone to work and to live semi-independently with Down syndrome. Like anyone else, people with Down syndrome need friendships and relationships.
Some will live with a partner or get married, and have an independent life. DOWN SYNDROME Down Syndrome is a congenital disorder arising from a chromosome It comes from a defect involving chromosome The condition leads to impairments in both cognitive ability and physical growth that range from mild to moderate developmental disabilities.
Down Syndrome Essay Examples. 45 total results. An Introduction to the Medical Genetic Condition Down Syndrome. 2, words. 6 pages. The Challenges of Coping With Down Syndrome. 3, words. A Description of down Syndrome and Its Effects on an Infants Who's Born with It.
1 page. Down syndrome Down syndrome is one of the most common genetic disorders, occurring one in every births (Davis, ). 3,, children are born with Down syndrome every year in the United States alone (Pueschel, ).
In this paper we will look at a short description of what Down syndrome really is, the genetic causes of Translocated Down syndrome, symptoms, characteristics, medications, intervention programs and testing for Down syndrome while an infant is still in the womb.
Down syndrome occurs in people of all races and economic levels, though older women have an increased chance of having a child with Down syndrome.
A 35 year old woman has about a one in chance of conceiving a child with Down syndrome, and this . A few of the common physical traits of Down syndrome are low muscle tone, small stature, an upward slant to the eyes, and a single deep crease across the center of the palm – although each person with Down syndrome is a unique individual and may possess .