He contributed a chapter related to this topic to Carol M.
A Warm and Bountiful Land - "distinguished by self-sown wheat, The dew there was very sweet; salmon of great size abounded; cattle could forage for themselves in winter, for there was no frost and the grass barely withered They played draughts, told stories, and occupied themselves with other activities to pass the time.
Karlsefni and Snorri wanted to set out and find Vinland, and the plans were discussed. They made their ship ready and wanted to sail to Vinland that summer [H: Bjarni and Thorhall also wanted to join the expedition with their ship and with the crew which they had brought with them.
There was a man by the name of Thorvald, the son-in-law of Eirik the Red [H: Thorhall was a huge, swarthy man who looked like an ogre; he was getting on in years, was bad-tempered and of few words, taciturn and cunning but nevertheless abusive in speech and always inciting [H: Eirik] to that which was evil.
He had cared little about the Christian religion since it had come to Greenland. Thorhall had few friends, yet Eirik had for a long time listened to his counsel. He was on board the ship with Thorvard [H: They had that same ship in which Thorbjorn had come to Greenland.
Most of the crew were Greenlanders. Altogether there were a hundred and sixty men on board the ships. First they sailed to the Western Settlement and from there to Bjarneyar.
They sailed from Bjarneyar before a northerly wind and were at sea two days. Then they found land and rowed ashore in the ship's boats to explore it. They found there many flat slabs of stones that were so big that two men could easily stretch out on them sole to sole.
They gave the land a name, and called it Helluland. They then sailed for two days before a northerly wind [H: South-east of the land there was an island, and there they encountered a bear and called the island Bjarney, Bear Island. The land with the forests they called Markland.
After two days they sighted land again and sailed in towards the coast [H: Then they sailed southward along the coast for a long time and came to a cape].
There they arrived at a cape; they sailed along the land and had it on their starboard side. It was an open harbourless shore with long sandy beaches. They rowed in to the shore and found [H: They also gave a name to the beaches, calling them Furdustrandir 'Wonder Beaches'because it took them so long to sail past them.
Then the coastline became indented with bays, and towards [H: Soulsby, Burt Franklin, New York, In other words, conventional views concerning the "Eastern", "Middle" and "Western" Norse settlements of modern Greenland notwithstanding, there should exist a corresponding set for Eastern, Central and Western North America.
Whether the Eastern Settlement lies in the Ungava Bay region or much further south remains debatable, as, no doubt, does a presumed location for a Middle Settlement somewhere in the Central Arctic perhaps around Cambridge Bay.
As for the Western Settlement or settlementsthese may or may not be found close to Yakutat Bay in Alaska; embracing perhaps neighbouring Icy Bay to the west, and Haines further to the east--all more or less along the 60th parallel with the last named also coinciding with the top end of the line of the unexplained Pacific Northwest stone cairns see Maps 4c2 and 6d below.
Thus, after arriving at the "Western Settlement" of "Greenland" it will still be necessary to proceed to "Vinland" in accordance with all the places, times, distances and directions given in the Sagas, i.
As far as Helluland is concerned, however, this "land" seems to have been noteworthy for large flat rocks and little else. That might well be so in the case of Baffin Island and the Helulland known for its white foxes, etc.
But given the size of the Pacific Northwest and the vagueness of the requirement itself, this becomes the nautical equivalent of a needle in a haystack. But why were flat rocks chosen at all, and so vaguely at that?PROVIDENCE, R.I.
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Examples included from the following: American Tramp and Underworld Slang: Words and phrases used by hoboes, tramps, migratory workers and those on the fringes of society, with their uses and origins, with a number of tramp songs edited, with essays on the slang and the songs by Godfrey Irwin, Editor.
With a terminal essay on American slang in its relation to English thieves' slang, by Eric. The electronic edition is a part of the UNC-CH digitization project, Documenting the American South. The text has been encoded using the recommendations for Level 4 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines.