He was the son of a poor cobbler in the provincial Georgian town of Gori in the Caucasusthen an imperial Russian colony. The drunken father savagely beat his son. Speaking only Georgian at home, Joseph learned Russian—which he always spoke with a guttural Georgian accent—while attending the church school at Gori — The mother, a devout washerwoman, had dreamed of her son becoming a priest, but Joseph Dzhugashvili was more ruffianly than clerical in appearance and outlook.
His pseudonym, Stalin, means "man of the steel hand". In the Russian Civil War that followed, Stalin forged connections with various Red Army generals and eventually acquired military powers of his own.
He brutally suppressed counter-revolutionaries and bandits. After winning the civil war, the Bolsheviks moved to expand the revolution into Europe, starting with Polandwhich was fighting the Red Army in Ukraine. Frustrated by the squabbling factions within the Communist Party during what he saw as a time of crisis, Lenin convinced the Tenth Congress to pass a ban on any opposition to official Central Committee policy the Ban on Factionsa law which Stalin would later exploit to expel his enemies.
Following the invasion, Stalin adopted particularly hardline, centralist policies towards Soviet Georgiawhich included severe repression of opposition to the Bolsheviks, and to opposition within the local Communist Party e.
With this power, he would steadily place his supporters in positions of authority. On 25 MayLenin suffered a stroke while recovering from surgery to remove a bullet lodged in his neck since a failed assassination attempt in August Severely debilitated, he went into semi-retirement and moved to his dacha in Gorki.
After this, prominent Bolsheviks were concerned about who would take over if Lenin actually died. Lenin and Trotsky had more of a personal and theoretical relationship, while Lenin and Stalin had more of a political and apparatical relationship.
Yet, Stalin visited Lenin often, acting as his intermediary with the outside world. As their relationship deteriorated, Lenin dictated increasingly disparaging notes on Stalin in what would become his testament.
Lenin died on 21 January Stalin was given the honour of organizing his funeral. At the Thirteenth Party Congress in Mayit was read out only to the heads of the provincial delegations. While the triumvirate remained intact throughout and the early months ofZinoviev and Kamenev did not regard Stalin highly as a revolutionary theorist, and often disparaged him in private even as they had aided him publicly against Trotsky and the Left Opposition.
Stalin proposed the theory of Socialism in One Country in Octoberwhich Bukharin soon elaborated upon to give it a theoretical justification. Zinoviev and Kamenev suddenly found themselves in a minority at the Fourteenth Party Conference in Aprilover their belief that socialism could only be achieved internationally, which resulted in the triumvirate splitting up.
With Trotsky mostly sidelined with a persistent illness duringZinoviev and Kamenev then formed the New Opposition against Stalin. Trotsky remained silent throughout this Congress.
In earlyZinoviev and Kamenev drew closer to Trotsky and the Left Opposition, forming an alliance which became known as the United Opposition.
The United Opposition demanded, among other things, greater freedom of expression within the Communist Party and less bureaucracy.
During the years of andSoviet policy toward the Chinese Revolution became the ideological line of demarcation between Stalin and the United Opposition. In reality, however, the Republic controlled very little of the country. Much of China was divided between various regional warlords.
Inthe Kuomintang opened relations with Soviet Russia.
With the development of the nationalist army, a Northern Expedition was planned to smash the power of the warlords of the northern part of the country. This Northern Expedition became a point of contention over foreign policy by Stalin and Trotsky.
Joseph Stalin was born Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili on December 21, , in Gori, Georgia. He was the only surviving son of Vissarion Dzhugashvili, a cobbler who first practiced his craft in a village shop but later in a shoe factory in the city. Stalin's father died in Stalin's mother. Joseph Stalin; Иосиф In , The History of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Bolsheviks), colloquially known as the Short Course, was released; Conquest later referred to it . Joseph Stalin, Russian in full Iosif Vissarionovich Stalin, original name (Georgian) Ioseb Dzhugashvili, (born December 18 [December 6, Old Style], , Gori, Georgia, Russian Empire [see Researcher’s Note]—died March 5, , Moscow, Russia, U.S.S.R.), secretary-general of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (–53) and premier of the Soviet state (–53), who for a quarter of a century .
Stalin tried to persuade the small Chinese Communist Party to merge with the Kuomintang KMT Nationalists to bring about a bourgeois revolution before attempting to bring about a Soviet-style working class revolution.
Trotsky wanted the Communist Party to complete an orthodox proletarian revolution and have clear class independence from the KMT. Stalin funded the KMT during the expedition. However, Chiang quickly reversed the tables in the Shanghai massacre of April by massacring the Communist Party in Shanghai midway through the Northern Expedition.
Attacks against the United Opposition increased in volatility and ferocity. Trotsky, Kamenev, and Zinoviev grew increasingly isolated and were ejected from the Central Committee in October While Trotsky remained firm in his opposition to Stalin after his expulsion from the Communist Party and his subsequent exile, Zinoviev and Kamenev capitulated almost immediately, and called on their supporters to follow suit.
They wrote open letters acknowledging their mistakes and were readmitted to the Communist Party in Juneafter a six-month cooling-off period. They never regained their Central Committee seats, but they were given mid-level positions within the Soviet bureaucracy.
Kamenev and Zinoviev were courted by Bukharin at the beginning of his short and ill-fated struggle with Stalin in the summer of This activity was soon reported to Stalin and was later used against Bukharin as proof of his factionalism.
Trotsky, firmer than ever in his opposition to Stalin, was exiled to Alma-ata in Januaryand was exiled from the Soviet Union itself in Februarysent into exile in Turkey. Stalin turns on the Right[ edit ] After the United Opposition were illegalized in Decemberthe Kulaks and NEPmen were emboldened and exerted much greater economic pressure on the Soviet government in the months afterwards.Joseph Stalin was born Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili on December 21, , in Gori, Georgia.
He was the only surviving son of Vissarion Dzhugashvili, a cobbler who first practiced his craft in a village shop but later in a shoe factory in the city. Stalin's father died in Stalin's mother Died: Mar 05, Nov 12, · Watch video · Joseph Stalin () was the dictator of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) from to Under Stalin, the Soviet Union was transformed from a peasant society into an.
Joseph Stalin () The man who turned the Soviet Union from a backward country into a world superpower at unimaginable human cost. Joseph Stalin, Russian in full Iosif Vissarionovich Stalin, original name (Georgian) Ioseb Dzhugashvili, (born December 18 [December 6, Old Style], , Gori, Georgia, Russian Empire [see Researcher’s Note]—died March 5, , Moscow, Russia, U.S.S.R.), secretary-general of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (–53) and premier of the Soviet state (–53), who for a quarter of a century .
Explore the life of Leon Trotsky, whose intellect and leadership made him a change agent during the Russian Revolution, only to lose favor with Lenin and incur the wrath of Joseph Stalin.
Joseph Stalin was born Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili in the village of Gori, in the Russian province of Georgia, on Dec. 21, His father was a shoemaker with a penchant for drunkenness, who left Gori when Stalin was young to seek employment in the city of Tiflis.
Thus Joseph's mother.